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نویسنده : kalam - ساعت ۳:٢٩ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩٢/٦/۱


One of the daunting challenges that face up newly fledged teachers ( and sometimes experienced ones too) is classroom management issues. Not every teacher is lucky enough to get the wheel turning smoothly right from the start. Disruptive behaviour can pose a real threat to the learning and teaching process and often times it turns a teacher's life into a living nightmare leading , in most cases, to giving up the job as a whole.

As an experienced teacher who have taught in different countries and as a researcher in the field of pedagogy and methodology ( in connection with technology ) I can comfortably confirm that if classroom management issues are not dealt with seriously they  can backfire and destroy what we are trying to build.  healthy learning milieu is not feasible without a well managed classroom and this latter requires a set of techniques that every ( new ) teacher should know of.

After digging through the pedagogy books I have assembled and read during my teaching career I came across one that is of paramount importance to new teachers. The book is called " Psychology for Teachers (Psychology for Professional Groups)" by David Fontana which I highly recommend for you. The book touches upon some key notions including : learning styles, psychology of kids, creativity, motivation...........and classroom management.

I am going to brief you on the most important techniques in classroom management which David recommended for teachers and which I myself have been using for 9 years now.

Classroom Management Techniques :

1- Interest The Class

class management techniques

In genral a class that is absorbed in its work does not want to cause problems.The class members will act disapprovingly towards any of their members who try to distract their attention

2- Avoid Personal Mannerisms

class management techniques

Mannerisms of specch, dress, gesture on the part of the teacher can be intensely irritating or comic to children who have to sit and watch them, and may well lead to negative behaviour on the part of the class.

3- Be Fair

class management techniques

Real or imagined injustices can breed resentment and hostility in children. Fairness means ensuring that any loss of priviliges,etc, is appropriate to the original misdeed, it means behaving towards children consistently so that they know what to expect, and it means keeping one's word. Interestingly, children of all ages rate " fairness" as one of the most desirable qualities in a teacher.

4- Be Humorous

class management techniques

This does not mean that teachers try to be knock-about comedian, but simply that they are prepared to laugh with the class( though not when the joke is on some unfortunate individual member of it), and to introduce humour into teaching material where suitable.

5- Avoid Unnecessary Threats

class management techniques

When threats are uttered they must be carried out. Constant offers of ' one last chance ' soon weaken the teacher's standing in the eyes of the class.

6- Be Punctual

class management techniques

A teacher who arrives late for a class not only sets the children a bad example but also may have to  quell a riot before the lesson can begin. Punctuality at the end of the lesson is of equal importance. Children soon resent being constantly late out for break or last in the lunch queue or late for the next lesson

7- Avoid Anger

class management techniques

Teachers who lose their temper may say and do things in the heat of the moment that they come to regret later. Certainly all teachers on accasions will feel the need to speak sharply to children, but this  quite different from heated outbursts in the schools or for the state of his or her physical health

8- Avoid Over-familiarity

class management techniques

The line between friendliness and over-familiarity can be a narrow one, but it is better to start off rather formally with a class and become more intimate as one gets to know them better, to behave, indeed, much as one does when making any new friends.

9- Offer Opportunities for responsibility

class management techniques

If all responsibility rests with the teacher, then it is not surprising  that children behave irresponsibly when not under difrect supervision. Offering children responsibility not only shows them they have the teacher's confidence, it also leads them to realize that what happens in the class is their concern just as much as it is the teacher's.

10-Focus Attention

class management techniques

General appeals for quiet or order in a classroom are of much less value than calling out the name of the child or children most directly involved, and thus focusing the attention of the class.In the silence that follows, the teacher can then issue further instructions.

11- Avoid Humiliating children

class management techniques

Quite apart from the potential psychological damage to the child or children concerned, humiliation attacks a child's status in the eyes of the rest of the class, and he or she may well use various strategies, all aimed at the teacher's authority , in order to re-establish it.

12- Be Alert

An important characteristic of teachers with good class control is that they appear to know at all times exactly what is going on in the classroom. They move frequently around the room . and insist children wait in their places when they have difficulties with their work rather than besieging the teacher who became isolated from the main action by a detachment of hand-waving children.

13- Use Positive Language

class management techniques

The emphasis should always be upon what we want children to do rather than upon what they refrain from doing. Thus we say " come in quietly " rather than " don't make so much noise ", " look at your books " rather than  " stop turning around "

14- Be Confident

class management techniques

Teachers who go into the class with a hesitant, tentative manner suggest to children that they are expecting trouble and are probably accustomed to being disobeyed. Very well, the class think to themselves, the teacher will not be disappointed. If, on the other hand, teachers are able to give the impression they are used to getting on well with children, then once again the children will be included to take this at face value and offer co-operation. So even if the teacher is feeling inexperienced and apprehensive, the moral is  not to show it.

15- Be Well-organized

class management techniques

Good classroom organization means :

A- making clear to children exactly what is expected of them in the way of getting out or putting away apparatus and equipment  before they start to do it

B- Children know where things are kept and they each have clear duties and responsibilities, both to deal with the normal running of the classroom and with the sudden emergencies when things get split or broken.

C- Planning lessons carefully so that the practical activities are within the scope and the competence of both teacher and class and never threaten to get out of hand.

D- A well-organized lesson with adequate material carefully prepared and with all equipment to hand and in goood working order is way better than one that even the teacher concedes bears a certain resemblance to a shambles.

16- Show that one likes children

Many people , recalling their schooldays, have stories of ogres of whom they were in awe, and of kindly, well-meaning souls whose lives they made a torment, but these stories are only remembered because they are unusual.For the most part, teahers who relate satisfactorily to children have the gift of conveying to them  sympathy, understanding, and a personal delight in the job of teaching. They indicate to the class that they want children to succeed not because this demonstrates their own competence but because success is important to children. Once the class is convinced they have the teacher's support, they will respond, as in any relartionship, with co-operation and esteem.

نویسنده : kalam - ساعت ۳:٢٤ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩٢/٦/۱

10 creative ways to teach English that deliver outstanding results

As an English teacher at an outstanding primary, Anna Warren is often asked for inspiration. Here she shares her favourite approaches for creative English lessons

English lesson
Creative curriculum: inspiring young imaginations using the arts is just one of the ways Anna Warren teaches her pupils. Photograph: Tom Finnie

As a creative school, with a track record in fantastic English results, we are often asked what our specific approach is: how do we teach through the arts yet manage to maintain such high expectations from all our pupils? I'd like to share some of these approaches with you:

Immersion activities

How can children access stories, poems and other texts if their minds and imaginations not fully engaged? We have found that immersing children in a range of creative activities before reading the text means that they are fully prepared, and excited, about the reading journey ahead of them. Through painting, music composition, a film project, in role drama or sculpture, the kids have had a chance to share vocabulary, ideas and concepts which gives their reading fresh meaning and purpose.

Clear purpose

What's the point of reading and writing anything if you don't know why you're doing it? We aim to provide children with a clear purpose to all reading, and especially writing tasks. Whether it's an invitation to the headteacher to attend a class assembly, an email to an author or an article for a school newspaper, our children know why the quality of their writing matters: because there will be a real audience for their published work.

Professional publishing

One effective way of valuing children's work as well as providing a real incentive, is to plan for a range of ways to publish their writing. Recent examples include a whole school bookmaking project. Following a whole school Inset on bookbinding techniques, every class published their own shared book; one example being an anthology of short spooky stories composed by year 6. Their stories were mounted on handmade paper, accompanied with each child's art work (lino cut style prints on metallic paper) with a dramatic paper cut out front cover. The effort the children put into their work was immense, and the results were stunning as a result. The anthology has been enjoyed by parents and other pupils and the children's pride in their work is clear to see.

Meaningful planning

Where possible, learning in English is linked with subjects within the creative curriculum we follow: the international primary curriculum (IPC). Well in advance of teaching, teachers collaborate and share their ideas for planning through a mind mapping process. Meaningful, creative activities are planned for, ensuring that all staff members know exactly what the children will be learning and why.

Focused on strategies

The teaching of reading is not easy. As children's fluency in reading increases, it's hard to know what reading skills need to be taught, and when. We ensure that specific reading strategies are modelled explicitly to the class; this provides children with a holistic bank of skills to draw upon. This could include scanning a text, making an inference, predicting or creating a mental image. Our teachers use 'think aloud' statements to model to the children how these skills are used, and how they can help them become better readers. These strategies are then shared as a class, and then assessed in follow up guided reading activities.

Inspirational learning environment

Take a trip to our school and you'll find classroom environments that inspire adults and children alike. Not only is the children's work displayed creatively, but there is a range of learning prompts to inspire and support all pupils. We want to encourage our children to discover new texts, genres and authors, so our reading areas are inviting, well resourced and highly organised. Pupils can choose from an exciting array of reading material: newspapers, classic texts, reference books as well as the children's own published stories are just some examples of what book corners might offer.

Drama to engage and inspire

The use of drama is such a powerful tool. Taking the lead from our drama specialist, all teaching staff use a range of techniques to promote the exploration of characters, situations and historical events. This process expands the pupils' imaginations, and provides them with the ideas they need to give their writing that extra spark and flair.

Rigorous teaching of spelling and phonics

In the infants, phonics is streamed, so all children can benefit from tailored teaching, making maximum progress as a result. All phonics and spelling activities are fun, multi sensory and as physical possible, the aim being to meet all learning styles in the class. In the juniors, we try to make homework lists as personalised to the child as possible to ensure that the spelling patterns stick in a meaningful way.

Grammar concepts taught creatively

Grammar cannot be taught as a stand alone activity. What's the point of that? Children begin to understand grammar concepts, and start to apply them in their own writing, when they start to read with a writer's mind. Punctuation rules and techniques are drawn from shared texts; texts which the children have already been immersed in and have a good understanding of. Exploring these, and embedding them creatively is how the learning takes place.

Peer and self assessment

What child doesn't love marking somebody else's work? With a clear marking key, success criteria and purpose in mind, children set about assessing either their own, or a partner's piece of writing. Modelled through the teacher's own formative marking, pupils know what the expectations are. They are well trained in searching for successful examples of the learning intention, articulating their responses to the work, checking the writing matches any targets and giving constructive feedback. Seeing the children learn from each other in this way is hugely positive; you know you've done your job well.

Anna Warren is the English subject leader and the year 6 teacher atHoly Trinity and St Silas School, London.